Also is known as Persia officially the Islamic Republic of Iran with over 79.92 million inhabitants (as of March 2017). Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. It is the only country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline.
Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the 4th millennium BC.
Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world.
Iran has an area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi). It is bordered to the Armenia , Nakhchivan, Republic of Azerbaijan , Afghanistan, Pakistan Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; Iraq and Turkey
The most famous mountainous are the Caucasus, Zagros, and Alborz. And the only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf.
There are wide range of climates in different parts of the country; Hot desert, Cold desert , Hot semi-arid ,Cold semi-arid, Hot-summer Mediterranean and Continental Mediterranean climates.
The majority of the population speaks Persian, which is also the official language of the country.
The earliest recorded cultures within the region of Iran date back to the Lower Paleolithic era. Owing to its dominant geopolitical position and culture in the world, Iran has directly influenced cultures as far away as Greece, Macedonia, and Italy to the West, Russia to the North, the Arabian Peninsula to the South, and indirectly South and East Asia to the East.
The history of Iranian architecture goes back to the 7th millennium BC. Iranians were among the first to use mathematics, geometry and astronomy in architecture. Iran ranks seventh among countries with the most archaeological architectural ruins and attractions from antiquity, as recognized by UNESCO.
Iranian cuisine is diverse due to its variety of ethnic groups and the influence of other cultures. Herbs are frequently used along with fruits such as plums, pomegranates, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. Iranians usually eat plain yogurt with lunch and dinner; it is a staple of the diet in Iran. To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavorings such as saffron, dried limes, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes. Onions and garlic are normally used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form. Iran is also famous for its caviar.
Iran is potentially a tourist hotspot. Most cities in Iran are famous sights to see such as Isfahan, Shiraz, Tehran, Mashahd, Tabriz, Kish, Kashan, and etc. best places to visit are such as Persepolice, Naqshe Jahan square, Musumes, Imam Reza Holy Shrine, Tbatabaie House, Darband, Tomb of Hafez and Saadi, Azadi and Milad tower, Natural parks like Eram Garden, Towers of silence, Niavaran palace complex, Golestan palace, Bridges, Rudkhan castle. And etc.